Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-08-01 Origin: Site
Resistance is related to many factors, such as age. Young people tend to be more resistant. Adequate and balanced nutrition and a healthy lifestyle are the foundation of resistance (immune health). At the same time, we can also enhance resistance (regulate immune function) by appropriately choosing certain dietary supplements, such as probiotics. There have been many studies showing the role of probiotics in improving respiratory infections.
1. Direct message
There are many antigens on the surface of probiotics, and friends of probiotics have corresponding antibodies.
Antigens and antibodies recognize each other, like a key opening a lock. Some locks cannot be opened, such as the lock on Pandora's box. But probiotics are called probiotics because they have the key (the microbe-associated molecular pattern MAMP) that unlocks the lock on the door of the treasure house (the pattern recognition receptor PRR). Dendritic cells, M cells, lymphocytes, and intestinal epithelial cells all have locks that they can open.
2. Indirect transmission of information
Probiotics can metabolize to produce short-chain fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid), secrete certain active substances (γ-aminobutyric acid GABA, 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT, certain enzymes, etc.), or through bacterial components Make connections with other cells and tissues.
Nearly 80% of our immune tissue is in the gut. The entire intestine is spread out, with a surface area of more than 400 square meters (our skin surface area is only about 2 square meters). It can be seen that the intestine is an important battlefield for the body to resist "aggressors". The probiotics we supplement are mainly put into this battlefield.
There is a layer of mucus on the surface of the intestine, and the mucus is covered with a layer of intestinal epithelial cells, and some lymphocytes, dendritic cells, M cells and goblet cells are interspersed between the epithelial cells. The lamina propria below the epithelial cells contains lymphoid follicles, effector T and B cells, macrophages and NK cells. Further down the submucosa is rich in blood vessels and peripheral nerves.
1. Probiotics directly fight pathogenic bacteria in the gut
The tricks of probiotics are: preempting positions (occupancy); preempting food and grass (fermentation substrates); direct elimination (secreting substances with bactericidal activity) and so on.
2. "Directing" the intestinal epithelium
"Command" the intestinal epithelium to secrete mucin (wear protective clothing) and maintain dense junctions between epithelial cells (tighten the fence), so that pathogens cannot invade the human body from the intestine; or secrete bacteriostatic peptides and bacteriocins that directly act on the Enteric pathogens.
3. Participate in the construction of "defense fortresses"
Participate in the construction of "fortresses of defense" (Petri's nodes, isolated lymphoid follicles and mesenteric lymph nodes). The development and maturation of these gut-associated lymphoid tissues coincides with the formation of gut microbiota in humans early in life. If the establishment of gut microbiota is affected by cesarean section, artificial feeding and other factors, appropriate probiotic supplementation will help the development and maturation of the immune system.
4. Participate in unit "training"
Most of the T cells and B cells in the lamina propria of the intestinal wall stay in the "fortress of defense", and probiotics help them decide when to deploy and what weapons to use.
Under the "training" of probiotics and intestinal symbiotic bacteria, T cells will differentiate into various cell subtypes with different "combat functions" such as Th1, Th2, Treg and Th17, and secrete different cytokines (tumor necrosis factor TNF- a and various interleukins), regulate the immune system in an appropriate functional range (the relationship between Th1/Th2 balance and allergic eczema is well known), which not only ensures the timely killing of pathogens, but also does not mistakenly attack probiotics And intestinal symbiotic bacteria, also not allergic to food. B cells secrete different antibodies (IgM, IgA and IgG, etc.) against different "enemies"; B cells differentiate into plasma cells, secrete a large amount of sIgA, and wrap most of the pathogens in the intestinal tract, so that they cannot do evil.
5. Participate in "logistics" supply
Butyric acid produced by probiotic fermentation in the gut is the main energy source for intestinal epithelial cells. With sufficient energy, these cells can fully play the role of "defending the home and the country". The energy metabolism status of immune cells is also related to their "fighting power".
6. Participate in "national mobilization"
Probiotics modulate systemic immune function by interacting with the endocrine and nervous systems. The active substances produced by the metabolism of probiotics are directly circulated to the organs such as the liver and the brain away from the intestines, so that the immune system of the whole body is in an optimal fighting state.