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Common knowledge about vitamins

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What are the vitamins?

Vitamins are a kind of trace organic substances that humans and animals must obtain from food in order to maintain normal physiological functions, and play an important role in the process of human growth, metabolism and development.

Vitamins types

According to the chemical properties of vitamins, they are divided into two categories: fat-soluble and water-soluble, and named with English letters according to the order of discovery.

1. Fat-soluble vitamins

(1) Vitamin A

It mainly includes retinol isolated from marine fish cod liver oil, now named vitamin A1, which is commonly referred to as vitamin A; and vitamin A2 (3-dehydroretinol) isolated from freshwater fish liver. In addition, carotene and zeaxanthin present in plants are called pro-vitamin A, which can be converted into vitamin A under the action of related enzymes in the human body.

(2) Vitamin D

It is a general term for a class of anti-rickets vitamins. The most important of these are vitamin D2 (ergocalcidol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). Vitamin D often coexists with vitamin A in cod liver oil. In addition, foods such as egg yolks, cream, and pork liver also contain vitamin D. Proper sunbathing is sufficient to meet the body's need for vitamin D.ascorbic acid purpose -NhSquirrel

(3) Vitamin E

Is a kind of vitamin related to reproductive function, also known as tocopherol. Vitamin E can reduce the oxygen consumption in the body tissues, which is beneficial to the tolerance of the body in the hypoxic state. It has a promoting effect on the production of heme in the liver. In addition, vitamin E has an antioxidant effect, preventing the peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, reducing the generation of peroxyesters, and also protecting, stabilizing and regulating biofilms. Anti-aging effect. But long-term high-dose application is potentially toxic, not only unhealthy, but potentially harmful.

(4) Vitamin K

Vitamin K is an essential substance for the synthesis of four coagulation proteins in the liver. Vitamin K controls blood clotting. Food is mainly derived from green leafy vegetables, other sources are fish, fish eggs, liver, egg yolk, cream, butter, cheese, meat, milk, fruit, nuts, grains, etc.

2. Water-soluble vitamins

(1) B vitamins

There are more than 12 kinds, and there are 9 kinds that are recognized by the world. All of them are water-soluble vitamins. They only stay in the body for a few hours and must be supplemented every day. B vitamins are essential nutrients for all human tissues and are key to the release of energy from food.

Vitamin B1: Thiamine

Vitamin B2: Riboflavin (forms FMN, FAD)

Vitamin B3: Niacin, Vitamin PP (constitute NAD, NADP)

Vitamin B5: Pantothenic acid (Pentolic acid), Niacin, Nicotinic acid

Vitamin B6: Pyridoxines, including pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine

Vitamin B7: Biotin (Vitamin H)

Vitamin B9: pteroylglutamic acid, folic acid, vitamin M, leaf essence

Vitamin B12: cobalamin, cyanocobalamin, coenzyme B12

(2) Vitamin C

The main function of vitamin C is anti-oxidation, and together with vitamin A and vitamin E, it is called the three Musketeers of antioxidants. Secondly, it can also improve immunity, prevent cancer, heart disease, stroke, protect teeth and gums, etc. In addition, vitamin C can also reduce skin melanin, thereby reducing pigmentation and making the skin fair. Foods rich in vitamin C are cauliflower, green peppers, oranges, grape juice, tomatoes and so on.